By Hasso Plattner
Recent achievements in and software program improvement, equivalent to multi-core CPUs and DRAM capacities of a number of terabytes in keeping with server, enabled the advent of a progressive know-how: in-memory information administration. This expertise helps the versatile and intensely quick research of big quantities of company facts. Professor Hasso Plattner and his examine crew on the Hasso Plattner Institute in Potsdam, Germany, were investigating and educating the corresponding techniques and their adoption within the software program for years.
This ebook relies on a web path that was once first introduced in autumn 2012 with greater than 13,000 enrolled scholars and marked the winning place to begin of the openHPI e-learning platform. The path is especially designed for college students of laptop technological know-how, software program engineering, and IT comparable matters, yet addresses company specialists, software program builders, expertise specialists, and IT analysts alike. Plattner and his team concentrate on exploring the interior mechanics of a column-oriented dictionary-encoded in-memory database. coated subject matters contain - among others - actual information garage and entry, uncomplicated database operators, compression mechanisms, and parallel subscribe to algorithms. past that, implications for destiny company functions and their improvement are mentioned. step-by-step, readers will comprehend the unconventional modifications and merits of the hot know-how over conventional row-oriented, disk-based databases.
In this thoroughly revised 2nd version, we include the suggestions of millions after all members on openHPI and consider most recent developments in not easy- and software program. better figures, reasons, and examples additional ease the certainty of the techniques awarded. We introduce complicated info administration ideas equivalent to obvious combination caches and supply new showcases that show the possibility of in-memory databases for 2 various industries: retail and lifestyles sciences.
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Additional resources for A Course in In-Memory Data Management: The Inner Mechanics of In-Memory Databases
6 Memory Hierarchy and Latency Numbers The memory hierarchy can be seen as a pyramid of storage mediums. The slower a medium, the cheaper it gets. This also means that the storage size on the slower levels increases with its lower price. The hierarchy levels of modern hardware are outlined in Fig. 3. At the very bottom, the cheapest and biggest medium is the hard disk. It replaces magnetic tapes as the slowest storage medium. Located on the next level, Flash is significantly faster than a traditional disk, but still used like one from a software perspective because of its persistence and usage characteristics.
Graphs are a generic representation suitable for almost any information. Even relational databases and the data stored in tables are basically graphs of related nodes with attributes. The most common operations on graphs are twofold: On the one hand is graph exploration with the goal to traverse and explore singular paths and on the other hand is graph analytics trying to explore and analyze the whole graph or multiple instances of a similar graph. In native graph databases explorative traversals are directly executed on a graph structure while in in-memory databases multi-way joins are required to follow a single path.
However, many attributes of such table are not used at all: 55 % of all columns are unused on average per company. This is due to the fact, that standard software needs to support many workflows in different industries and countries, however a single company never uses all of them. Further, in many columns NULL or default values are dominant, so the entropy (information containment) of these columns is very low (near zero). , there are very few distinct values. Often due to the fact that the data models the real world, and every company has only a limited number of products that can be sold, to a limited number of customers, by a limited number of employees and so on.