By Wilmot Godfrey James, Human Sciences Research Council
This paper was once awarded because the first annual John Gerhart Memorial Lecture on the convention of the Africa Genome Initiative held in Cairo in March 2004. In Africa within the Age of Biology, Dr James discusses Africa's lengthy historical past of medical, technological and mathematical company, from tokens of the very earliest counting via people to the sum of data delivered to undergo within the building of the pyramids. yet he specializes in the demanding situations of this present day, and the next day, which he indicates Africa's leaders and students dare now not forget. Dr James argues that Africa stands challenged to behave by itself initiative to concentration funding past the size of NEPAD's projects, supply political management and direct scholarly cognizance on benefiting from genetic advancements for the advantage of its populations.
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33 TESTES The CREB and CREM genes are highly expressed in the testes. The primary transcripts of these two genes undergo complex patterns of alternative splicing of exons during both the postnatal developmental maturation of spermatogenesis and the endogenous cycling of the seminiferous tubules in the adult animal. The alternative splicing results in the interconversions of transactivator, transrepressor, and inactive isoforms of CREB and CREM. The seminiferous tubules consist of the germ cells at various stages of development, the somatic Sertoli cells, and the intestinal Leydig cells.
FUNCTIONALLY DISTINCT DOMAINS A. , 1992). The structures of the CREM and ATF-1 genes have not yet been reported. , 1991). The exons that make up the CREB and CREM genes are functionally modular in nature (Fig. 10). Exons E and F encode the P box, or KID, while exons C and G encode glutamine-rich regions important in mediating the transactivational activity imparted by phosphorylations in the P-box domain. Exons H and I encode the DNA binding domain consisting of the basic region and the leucine zipper dimerization sequences.
The CREM gene has two promoters: A 5' constitutively acting promoter, P1 (left), and a CAMP-regulated internal promoter, P2, located in the intron between exons G and X (y). The P2 promoter encodes a transrepressor isoform of CREM, ICER (inducible CAMP early repressor), consisting of the DNA-binding bZIP domain. Two bZIP domains are encoded by alternative splicing of exon I (I, and Ib). The nomenclature for the CREM isoforms is described in Greek letters on the left and according to their exonic composition on the right.