By Linda A. Felton, James W. McGinity
Aqueous-based movie coating has turn into regimen within the pharmaceutical undefined. This technique removes using natural solvents and hence avoids financial, environmental, and toxicological matters on the topic of residual solvents and solvent restoration. Aqueous-based coating, even if, is complicated and lots of variables may well influence the ultimate product and its functionality. This fourth version of Aqueous Polymeric Coatings for Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms goals to supply perception into the criteria and parameters that are meant to be thought of and regulated for the profitable improvement and commercialization of a covered product.
The fourth variation has been revised and improved to mirror the latest clinical developments from the literature. The contributing authors clarify intimately, utilizing illustrated examples, acceptable steps to unravel and preferably keep away from formula, processing, and balance difficulties and to accomplish an optimized dosage shape. exchange names and chemical names of commercially advertised coatings are used during the textual content to aid familiarize the reader with a few of the fabrics to be had for pharmaceutical functions. This e-book might be a invaluable source for a person within the pharmaceutical operating within the sector of aqueous-based movie coating.
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Additional resources for Aqueous polymeric coatings for pharmaceutical dosage forms
7 illustrates the forces exerted on spherical particles as water evaporation proceeds. 7 Particle coalescence during the evaporative phase. 17 Pseudolatex Dispersions for Controlled Drug Delivery where θ is the half-angle of coalescence (contact angle) at time t, σ is the surface or interfacial tension, r is the radius of a sphere, and η is the viscosity of the spheres. The contact angle is initially zero at the point of first contact and increases as the two particles fuse together. This equation illustrates the inverse relationship between polymer viscosity of the spheres and the degree of coalescence, which is the rationale for adding a plasticizer to the coating formulation to soften the spheres and promote fusion.
ATBC, acetyl tributyl citrate. (From J. Siepmann, O. Paeratakul, R. Bodmeier, Modeling plasticizer uptake in aqueous polymer dispersions. ) For the plasticizer to be effective, it must partition into the polymer spheres. Due to their low aqueous solubility, transfer via the aqueous medium is rate limiting. Siepmann et al. 19, and the authors considered a minimum uptake of 85% to be reasonable with respect to common curing conditions. The greater the aqueous solubility, the faster the time to reach 85% partitioning (T85).
44 shows how release patterns can be modified by the addition of a water-soluble polymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). However HPMC destabilizes the aqueous ethylcellulose dispersion, which can result in partial coalescence and unpredictable release profiles. Siepmann et al. have identified soluble polymers physically compatible with aqueous ethylcellulose dispersions, such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)–polyethylene glycol (PEG) copolymer, propylene glycol alginate (PGA), and carrageenan, which are better suited to giving concentration-dependent release modulations [45–47].